Welcome to the Troitsk Institute for Innovation
and Fusion Research (TRINITI), renowned world-wide for its successful research activities in the fields
of controlled thermonuclear fusion, plasma physics, laser physics and engineering, and pulsed power sources
based on MHD-generators.
The Institute dates back to 1956 when, on
the initiative of Academician A.P.Alexandrov, the Magnetic Laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences
In 1961 the Laboratory became a subdivision
and later a division of the I.V.Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy. Since 1971 it has been a Branch
of the I.V.Kurchatov Institute headed by Academician E.P.Velikhov
up to 1978. From 1978 to 2003 it was run by V.D.Pis'menny, Corresponding
Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1991 the Branch of the I.V.Kurchatov Institute of Atomic
Energy was renamed the Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI).
In 1994 the Institute was given a status of
the State Research Center of the Russian Federation that was confirmed in 1997, 2000 and 2002. At present,
Professor V.E.Cherkovets is Director of the SRC RF TRINITI.
The results of the Institute research activity
are characterized by a high level of novelty, urgency and a wide scope of application:
- first, they are of fundamental importance for such areas as plasma, solid
state and semiconductor physics, studies of materials subjected to irradiation of high density energies,
gas discharge physics, energy conversion, etc.,
- second, they find their application in the development of thermonuclear
reactors, techniques and devices for diagnostics of solids and high-temperature plasma, X-ray sources,
various types of lasers, plasma accelerators, new technological processes using plasma fluxes and laser
radiation, materials with improved properties, autonomous power supplies and, finally, in the prospecting
of mineral resources and creation of systems for their monitoring, etc.
Notable research efforts are made in he investigations
into Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (CTF), promising to achieve a thermonuclear reaction of light elements
(deuterium and tritium) in the mode of controlled power release. The investigations are being conducted
on the unique experimental facilities comprising the "Angara 5-1" facility (the largest facility in Europe
and Asia intended to solve scientific and applied problems within the programs of using techniques for
generating super high electric power pulses) and the thermonuclear complex "SFT" (Strong Field Tokamak).
On the "T-11M" facility, being a part of this complex, the physical processes proceeding in the experimental
thermonuclear reactor are under study.
Two approaches to accomplishing a controlled
reaction of thermonuclear fuel burning are considered:
- "quiet" stationary and quasi-stationary fuel burning in stable magnetic
systems which isolate a hot fuel plasma of a relatively low density from the reactor walls (i.e. systems
with magnetic plasma confinement);
- subsequent microexplosions of dense thermonuclear targets irradiated by
high power laser or particle (electron or ion) beams, or target compression with pulsed magnetic field,
as well as plasma heat up and confinement with super-high pulsed currents (inertial plasma confinement).
On conducting experiments within CTF program
a spectrometer of fast neutrons on the basis of a diamond detector has been designed and created, that
enabled, for the first time, the energy distribution spectrum and the anisotropy of neutron radiation
spectra of high temperature D-T tokamak plasma to be measured; besides radiation resistant techniques
for measuring flows and ionization dozes have been also developed.
The next major research effort in the CTF
program deals with the dynamics of a high temperature pulsed plasma. Some new methods have been developed
to reinforce materials (e.g., to reduce surface layer microscopic roughness and friction coefficient,
to increase corrosion resistance in aggressive media, etc.), accompanied by producing a variety of
adequate devices. The advantages of the plasma treatment technique have been demonstrated in a number
of commercially available components.
Among the traditional fields of research at
TRINITI are those devoted to the problems of laser physics, the development of promising lasers and the
improvement of laser system parameters.
The created laser facilities with various
active media (CO2-lasers, CO-lasers, solid state lasers and excimer lasers)
differ in both their operation modes (continuous, pulsed and pulse-periodic) and parameters. They could
find application in various branches of science and technology, e.g. controlled thermonuclear fusion,
plasma diagnostics, treatment of various materials, laser chemistry, laser isotope separation, environmental
At the present time, great attention is paid
to mobile laser technological systems developed at TRINITI. These systems permit a remote action of a
laser beam with a power up to 50 kW on various objects, in particular, they make it possible to
cut metallic and reinforced concrete structures for disassembly and emergency repair operations at gas
and oil wells and nuclear power plants, as well as for scrapping vessels and submarines (including atomic
ones). The mobile equipment has proved its efficient operation being applied to burn a film of spilled
oil, to deactivate contaminated surfaces by a method of peeling and to serve other objectives.
At TRINITI the scientists have successfully
demonstrated the applicability of the developed MHD-installations in the Earth's crust sounding, mineral
prospecting and earthquake forecasting.
In the recent years, a concept of an MHD-generator
operating in a short-repetitive mode has been developed which could find its application as a powerful
autonomous energy source incorporated into a marine complex designed for electric prospecting and inspecting
oil and gas deposits on the sea shelf. Such an MHD-installation called the "Shelf", by contrast to existing
pulsed MHD-generators, is to make use of a cheaper and ecologically superior working medium and to be
capable of operating in a short-repetitive (with a 10 minute pulse-to-pulse period) mode at a significantly
greater resource of its gas dynamic path and elevated operation safety. Thus, the "Shelf" installation
provides a lower (by a factor of five) cost per unit of electric power and a broader scope for its operation.
Nowadays the SRC RF TRINITI has gathered a
staff of highly proficient scientists and engineers. Among them there are 3 members of the Russian Academy
of Sciences, 54 awarded with a doctoral degree and 168 with a Ph.D. degree. Many of the research staff
have been awarded the Lenin and State Prizes of the USSR and Russia and also other prizes, orders and
medals received from the USSR and RF Government.
The Institute is situated 20 km from Moscow
in a lovely town of Troitsk.